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Les pronom relative en grammaire fran cais

Pronom relative:

The pronom relative is the word which are used:

– to establish a link between two sentences(between main clause and subornate clause) by using the pronouns.

-to  replace the direct object ,subject,  preposition  or  indirect object.

The basic purpose of using pronom relative is to link the subordinated or coordinated clause to main clause, and to avoid the  usage of subject  or object direct  or name of the place which is repeating in subordinated or coordinated clause.

We use following Pronom relative relatives:

Qui , Que and

Note:Qui and que can both be used to refer to persons or things. The main difference is, qui is used for the subject (or indirect object for persons) while que is for the direct object. Qui is also being used after a preposition (à, de or pour)

Qui:       could mean who, which, or that.

This pronoun is used to replace the subject in subordinated clause. Qui replaces the name of the personne and the things or objects.

Qui functions as the SUBJECT of the subordinate clause.


1.J’aime ce livre.                                         I like this book.
C’est livre est bien écrit.                            This book is well written.
J’aime ce livre qui est bien écrit.              I like this book which is well written.

In the above e.g  “livre” is used twice. Here since “Livre” word is repeated twice while joining these two sentences we use “QUI” in the place  of “Livre” which is repeating in the second sentence to avoid the repetition. Also the word “livre” in the second sentence is the place of” subject” so we use QUI.

j’ai renconte mon ami.                   I met my friend.
Mon ami est chanteur.                  My friend is a singer.
j’ai rencontré mon ami qui est un chanteur.     I met my friend who is a singer.

In the above example the word “ami” has been repeated twice. Here we sue “qui” In the place the “ami” of the second sentence (which is a subject in the sentence) which changes to a subordinate clause while linking these two sentences.

J’ai un frère.           Mon frère habite au Canada.
I ‘ve a brother. My brother stays in Canada.

→ J’ai un frère qui habite au Canada.
→  I ‘ve  a brother who stays in Canada.

  1. Les voitures roulent vite. Les voitures sont dangereuses.

→ Les voitures qui roulent vite sont dangereuses.

  1. Mon chat peut communiquer. Il est intelligent.

→ Mon chat qui est intelligent peut communiquer.

  1. La femme porte une robe bleue. La robe bleue est belle.

→ La femme porte une robe bleue qui est belle.

  1. J’ai un livre. Ce livre est ancien.

→ J’ai un livre qui est ancien.

  1. Je mange une soupe. Cette soupe est froide.

→ Je mange une soupe qui est froide.

Le journal sportif l’équipe, qui a longtemps été le qoutidien francias le plus lu.
The sports newspaper l’équipe, which was the most read french daily for  long time.

If we write this sentence as two sentence :
Le journal sportif l’équipe.

l’équipe a longtemps été le qoutidien francias le plus lu.
If you see in the above sentence you will find the word “l’équipe” has been repeated twice.

So while linking these two sentence we replace “l’équipe.” With “qui”.

Que (direct object) could mean who, whom, which, or that.
Que is used instead of the noun which is the direct object in the subordinate clause.

e.g :1

1.J’achete la voiture.    I buy the car.
2.Mon  ami conduit cette voiture.    My friend drives this car.

J’achete la voiture que mon ami conduit.
I buy the car that my friend drives.

In the above example “car” is the direct object the second sentence. And while joining these two sentences to avoid the repetition of word”car” we use QUE.

1. Où habite le proffeseur ?
2. Je l’ai vu aujourd’hui. Ou j’ai vu la proffeseur aujourd’hui.

Où habite le peintre que j’ai vu aujourd’hui ?
Where does the painter whom I saw today ?.

In the above sentence the word “proffeseur” is a direct object in the second sentence which is replaced with que when these two sentences are joined

  1. Tu bois un café. Il est trop chaud.

⇒  Le café que tu bois est trop chaud.

Note: note that que is shortened to qu’ if it precedes a word that starts with a vowel or most words that begin with a letter h.


la fille qu’il a épousée s’appelle Jenny
The name of the girl whom he married is jenny.

In the above sentence que change to qu’ because when que is followed by il which si beginning with vowel.

La bicyclette ne me servait plus. j’ai vendu La bicyclette.
La bicyclette que j’ai vendue ne me servait plus.

Note: When the COD is before the verb the past participle should agree with the COD.


-La valise que j’ai prise est lourde.
In this sentence “la valise is feminine” so the past participle “pris” changes to “prise” which indicates that the COD is gender feminine.

-Les maisons que tu as construites sont solides.
Here the pastparticiple “construite” is written as “construites” indicating the COD is plural.

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